Antarctica utilises a mix of handheld radio and satellite phone services to provide communications between research stations on the continent. Argentine bases have GSM networks provided by Argentinean carriers Claro and Movistar, relying on satellite uplink as their backhaul to mainland Argentina. The only standalone cellular mobile service is operated by the Australian government in conjunction with Range Networks who operate an OpenBTS-based GSM service, covering Macquarie Island and several research stations on the Antarctic continent.