Antenna Polarisations

Polarisation is perhaps the most fundamental characteristic of an antenna which describes the plane in which its electric field radiates. It is an important parameter to understand as wireless communication requires transmit and receive antennas to operate on the same polarity.

You can learn more about polarisation at our Understanding Polarisation page.

Polarisations shown below are used to classify both the antenna and an antenna's internal radiating elements in our databases. When classifying an antenna, it may be necessary to attach multiple polarisations in order for it to appear under all categories which reflect its operation. Radiating elements tend only to have one polarisation which reflects its orientation inside the antenna radome.

MIMO Polarisations

While strictly speaking MIMO is not a type of antenna polarisation, it is often necessary to classify an antennas operation as nXn MIMO, as multiport antennas may have element subsets which are combined together to form a more complex operation. An example may be a combination antenna with one subset providing 2X2 operation on a lower frequency band, and a second subset providing 4X4 operation on an upper frequency band.

This also helps us to simplify the classify antenna arrays, such as phased arrays, 64T64R Massive MIMO, which use RF combiners to output fewer number of ports than elements.

 

Classification Description
Linear

An antenna is classified as Linearly polarised if the internal element radiates a plane wave whose electric field vector is linearly polarized. This classification is used for antennas which do not have a predefined mounting orientation, and as such should not be classified as either vertically or horizontally polarised.

Vertical (V)

An antenna is classified as Vertically polarised if the internal element radiates a linearly polarised wave whose electric field vector is parallel to the ordinary mounting of the antenna radome.

Horizontal (H)

An antenna is classified as Horizontally polarised if the internal element radiates a linearly polarised wave whose electric field vector is orthogonal to the ordinary mounting of the antenna radome.

Slant +45°

An antenna is classified as Slant +45° polarised if the internal element radiates a linearly polarised wave whose electric field vector is 45 degrees clockwise, when viewed in the forward direction, to the ordinary mounting of the antenna radome.

Slant -45°

An antenna is classified as Slant -45° polarised if the internal element radiates a linearly polarised wave whose electric field vector is 45 degrees counterclockwise, when viewed in the forward direction, to the ordinary mounting of the antenna radome.

Dual Slant ±45°

An antenna is classified as Dual Slant ±45° polarised if it contains two internal elements operating as a single unit, in which the first and second elements radiate linearly polarised waves whose electric field vectors are 45 degrees clockwise and 45 degrees counterclockwise, when viewed in the forward direction, to the ordinary mounting of the ...

Dual Pol (V, H)

An antenna is classified as Dual Pol (V, H) polarised if it contains two internal elements operating as a single unit, in which the first and second elements radiate linearly polarised waves whose electric field vectors are orientated vertically and horizontally respectively, when viewed in the forward direction, to the ordinary mounting of the ...

Left Hand Circular (LHCP)

An antenna is classified as Left Hand Circularly Polarised if the driven element radiates an electromagnetic wave in which either the electric or the magnetic vector executes a counterclockwise circle perpendicular to the path of propagation with a frequency equal to that of the wave.

The term hand is used as it refers to the formation of a ...

Right Hand Circular (RHCP)

An antenna is classified as Right Hand Circularly Polarised if the driven element radiates an electromagnetic wave in which either the electric or the magnetic vector executes a clockwise circle perpendicular to the path of propagation with a frequency equal to that of the wave.

The term hand is used as it refers to the formation of a "thumbs up ...

Dual Linear

An antenna is classified as Dual Linear if it contains two internal elements operating as a single unit, in which the first and second elements radiate polarised waves whose electric field vectors are orthogonal to each other.

Single unit is an arbitrary term which may refer to any aspect of the antenna's operation, including but not limited to ...

2x2 MIMO

An antenna is classified as 2x2 MIMO if it contains two internal elements operating as a single unit. No restriction on polarisation is given.

Single unit is an arbitrary term which may refer to any aspect of the antenna's operation, including but not limited to, operating frequency band, described application, or multiple element technology.

...
3x3 MIMO

An antenna is classified as 3x3 MIMO if it contains three internal elements operating as a single unit. No restriction on polarisation is given.

Single unit is an arbitrary term which may refer to any aspect of the antenna's operation, including but not limited to, operating frequency band, described application, or multiple element technology.

...
4x4 MIMO

An antenna is classified as 4x4 MIMO if it contains four internal elements operating as a single unit. No restriction on polarisation is given.

Single unit is an arbitrary term which may refer to any aspect of the antenna's operation, including but not limited to, operating frequency band, described application, or multiple element technology.

...
8x8 MIMO

An antenna is classified as 8x8 MIMO if it contains eight internal elements operating as a single unit. No restriction on polarisation is given.

Single unit is an arbitrary term which may refer to any aspect of the antenna's operation, including but not limited to, operating frequency band, described application, or multiple element technology.

...
Massive MIMO

An antenna is classified as Massive MIMO if it contains a large number of radiating elements (typically more than eight) operating as a single unit. Massive MIMO antennas typically comprise of an antenna array, such as 64T64R, 128T128R, 256T256R.

Single unit is an arbitrary term which may refer to any aspect of the antenna's operation, including ...